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Cateterismo cardíaco: o que é e como é o procedimento?

O que é um cateter? Como o cateterismo é realizado? É um exame invasivo? Que tipo de riscos estão envolvidos no procedimento? Estas e outras perguntas serão respondidas no texto que segue. Boa leitura!

O cateterismo é um procedimento médico considerado invasivo (ou seja, que invade os tecidos) para diagnóstico de algumas condições cardíacas. O cateter, composto por um tubo longo e flexível, é colocado dentro de um vaso sanguíneo através de uma pequena incisão e guiado até o coração.

Algumas vezes um pigmento especial é colocado no cateter para fazer com que o interior do coração e vasos sanguíneos apareçam no raio-x. O pigmento pode mostrar se placas estreitaram ou bloquearam as artérias coronárias. As placas são feitas de gordura, colesterol, cálcio e outras substâncias encontradas no sangue. Este acúmulo causado pela sedimentação destas substâncias acaba por estreitar o interior das artérias e pode restringir o fluxo de sangue ao coração. Quando isso acontece é chamado de doença da artéria coronária.

Bloqueios nas artérias também podem ser vistos usando ultrasom durante o cateterismo cardíaco. O ultrasom usa ondas sonoras para criar imagens detalhadas dos vasos sanguíneos do coração, desta forma, os médicos podem tomar amostras de sangue e músculo cardíaco durante o cateterismo, assim como realizar pequena cirurgia cardíaca.

Cardiologistas geralmente fazem o cateterismo no hospital com a pessoa acordada durante o procedimento. Há pouca ou nenhuma dor durante o cateterismo, porém a pessoa pode sentir dolorido no vaso sanguíneo onde o médico inseriu o cateter. O cateterismo cardíaco raramente causa complicações sérias. Em geral, dura entre 30 e 60 minutos, conforme o procedimento realizado. Feito na sala de cateterismo, com o paciente acordado (anestesia local), deitado sob um aparelho de raio-X. Só em criança é usado anestesia geral para evitar agitação.

Como se Preparar

Fazer jejum de quatro horas antes do exame.

Em geral, não é necessário suspender os medicamentos em uso.

Procurar repousar antes do exame.

Quem deve passar pelo cateterismo cardíaco

O cateterismo cardíaco é usado para diagnóstico e/ou tratamento de várias condições cardíacas. O médico pode recomendar o cateterismo cardíaco para várias razões diferentes. A razão mais comum é para avaliar dor no peito, a qual pode ser sintoma de doença da artéria coronária e o cateterismo cardíaco pode mostrar se a placa está estreitando ou bloqueando as artérias cardíacas.

É indicado para: • mostrar obstruções das artérias que irrigam a musculatura do coração (coronárias);

• quantificar alterações do funcionamento das válvulas e do músculo cardíacos;

• esclarecer alterações anatômicas não confirmadas por outros exames;

• mostrar em detalhes uma malformação congênita;

• desobstruir artérias e válvulas.

Variações terapêuticas

• Angioplastia: Desobstrução de artéria coronária ou ponte de safena que esteja comprometida por uma placa de gordura ou um coágulo. É feita usando-se um balão que, posicionado e inflado no ponto de estrangulamento, restitui a circulação no vaso.

• Stent coronário: Fixação de uma tela de aço inoxidável na parede interna do vaso desobstruído durante a angioplastia, para impedir novo estrangulamento.

• Valvoplastia: Desobstrução de válvulas cardíacas (pulmonar e mitral) por meio de um ou mais balões infláveis, normalizando a livre circulação do sangue.

Riscos: o maior risco envolvido no cateterismo é o produto de baixa qualidade, aumentando as chances de infecção, dano aos vasos sanguíneos e até instrumentos quebrados dentro dos pacientes.

Certifique-se de que o cateter utilizado é de material confiável, de preferência que tenha na composição de seu material, clorexidina e sulfato de azina de prata, que são antibióticos de alta tecnologia que reduzem significativamente os riscos de infecção no paciente.

Fontes: Wikipedia e Arrow International

Category: Notícias
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